In this speech Houari Boumediene (1932-1978), former President of Algeria (1965-1978), uses interesting devices to lament the loss of revolutionary values and zeal among the Algerian population following independence. He accosts the manner in which “independence has made us soft,” thereby lessening the appreciation for revolutionary struggle. Alluding a Qur’anic verse (in which Moses tells the Jews to head forth into the Promised Land prepared to fight for it and respond that God should go forth and take it, rejecting the armed struggle), he notes that in the times of the Revolution the people “did not say ‘let our God go forth to the Promised Land and take it for us,’ they said ‘let us go forth and fight the jihad [for independence].'” He goes on to say that the common man was ready to “set out from Wilaya four [the FLN district responsible for Algiers during the Algerian Revolution] with his rifle” ready for revolutionary combat. Such zeal, Boumediene argues, is fading after independence, and must be rekindled. Such enthusiasm (seen in both the deposed Ben Bella regime and clearly Boumediene’s) for the struggle of national liberation is what motivated Algeria’s staunch support for rebells in the Portuguese colonies (especially Angola and Mozambique), South Africa, and (partially) the Western Sahara. It was also the impetus behind the strong Cuban-Algerian and Sino-Algerian (more so under Ben Bella, who often sported Mao-style tunics) partnerships, which are some of Algeria’s strongest and longest lasting international partnerships. Interestingly, he admits that “some measures taken during the Revolution were harsh,” but the reality of the situation necessitated such measures.